There’s a significant development that everyone watching the West’s water woes needs to be aware of: three states – California, Arizona, and Nevada – along with the Biden administration, just reached a consensus on the dangerously overdrawn Colorado River. On Monday, they agreed to siphon off less water from the river, a move celebrated cautiously by conservationists, who contend that these cuts fall short of what’s necessary to restore balance to a system that millions depend upon.
These negotiations, involving the Biden administration, the three states, Indigenous tribes, water management districts, and agribusinesses, have been ongoing for nearly a year. As per the deal, the federal government will distribute approximately $1.2 billion in Inflation Reduction Act funds to various cities, tribes, and water districts if they agree to reduce their water usage. The three states have collectively consented to use 3 million acre-feet less water by the end of 2026, which equates to a 13% reduction of their total Colorado River allocation.
U.S. Interior Secretary Deb Haaland lauded this step as a testament to the Biden-Harris administration’s commitment to finding consensus solutions to the challenges of climate change and sustained drought. However, critics, including the Society of Environmental Journalists’ president, Luke Runyon, point out that the agreed reductions are significantly less than what federal scientists have suggested as necessary to stabilize the river system, which is a lifeline for tens of millions in the Southwest.
This agreement is a positive step but falls short of being a panacea for the river’s problems. Rather, it serves as a consensus solution to manage near-term water demands and a bridge to negotiate future operating criteria post-2026. The Colorado River Basin faces a future of increased warmth and dryness, and reducing water usage, improving water efficiency, and optimizing water recycling and reuse are paramount for the 40 million people who rely on this essential water source.
Moreover, we cannot forget that corporate agriculture and fossil fuel companies contribute significantly to water overexploitation. Without addressing this elephant in the room, our solutions remain incomplete.
The Colorado River’s history runs deep. It has been a lifeline for Native tribes, settlers, and cities. Over the last century, the river’s waters were divided among the western states, creating a “use it or lose it” system. Critics argue that this system incentivizes farmers to grow water-intensive crops in the desert, leading to a perverse overuse of water. Currently, around three-quarters of the river’s flow irrigates over five million acres of farmland, and hydroelectric plants along the Colorado generate over 12 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually.
Recent decades have seen the river flow at an alarmingly low rate due to the Southwest’s intensifying droughts exacerbated by the climate emergency and a burgeoning population in the nation’s driest region. As environmental and resource economist Nick Hagerty emphasized, the only real solution to the Colorado River shortage is to drastically reduce water usage, which implies permanent reductions in crops grown.
Ultimately, we need to be vigilant and push for more significant strides in preserving our precious water resources. While this agreement is a start, it’s evident that the Colorado River crisis requires more than just a drop in the bucket. Let’s hope this small step triggers a cascade of more significant changes to protect our life-giving river.